Friday, August 7, 2009

The Human Challenge 12 chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4

Question 1
A modern definition of culture emphasizes the values, beliefs, and rules that lie behind behavior rather than the actual observable behavior itself.

Correct Answer: True


Question 2

A society is held together by a shared sense of identity and worldview. This collective body of ideas allows a society to make sense of the world, its challenges and opportunities. It is known as ____.

Correct Answer: superstructure

Question 3

Learned behavior is exhibited to one degree or another by most, if not all, mammals.

Correct Answer: True

Question 4

All of the following are common aspects of culture except ____.

Correct Answer: genes

Question 5

The term "gender" refers to ____.

Correct Answer: cultural meanings assigned to the biological differences between the sexes

Question 6

Among the Kapauku Papuans of New Guinea, the fact that an attempt to eliminate warfare (which would create a balanced sex ratio) would affect the practice of polygyny, which would affect the economy (since women raise pigs, and the more wives a man has the more pigs he can keep), shows that culture is ____.

Correct Answer: integrated

Question 7


Male dominance is characteristic of all human societies.

Correct Answer: False


Question 8


No known human societies exist, or have existed, that do not exhibit culture.

Correct Answer: True

Question 9


Which of the following is not an element associated with the barrel model of culture?

Correct Answer: interstructure


Question 10


In the movie Witness, a policeman named John Book was able to hide from his corrupt boss by staying with the Amish. He was protected by adopting their mode of dress, by the fact that they had no telephones, and by their being a closely-knit community united by shared values that differed from those of the larger society. The Amish in the United States are an example of a(n) ____.

Correct Answer: subculture


Question 11


The first clear and comprehensive definition of culture was made by ____.

Correct Answer: Edward B. Tylor


Question 12


The ____ of culture is/are what a culture must do to satisfy basic needs of its members.

Correct Answer: functions

Question 13


Chimpanzees hunt for what reason?

Correct Answer: all of the above

Question 14


The evolutionary trend for primate dentition has been toward a reduction in the number and size of the teeth.

Correct Answer: True

Question 15


Anatomically modern Homo sapiens indisputably appear by ____ years ago.

Correct Answer: 30,000


Question 16


The first known stone industry was the Oldowan Tradition, dating back ____.

Correct Answer: 2.5-2.6 million years

Question 17


A race is a subspecies within a species.

Correct Answer: True


Question 18


Which of the following primates has the least opposability in hands and feet?

Correct Answer: humans


Question 19


George Armelagos argues that the first major decline in human health occurred with the earliest human village settlements.

Correct Answer: True

Question 20


The shift from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens occurred within the ____.

Correct Answer: Pleistocene

Question 21


Biological evolution refers to ____.

Correct Answer: changes in the genetic makeup of a population over generations


Question 22


European scientists have argued about human classification since the Early Paleolithic.

Correct Answer: False


Question 23


Paleoanthropologists believe that H. erectus had learned to use fire by ____ years ago.

Correct Answer: 1 million


Question 24


Natural selection operates on the level of the individual member of a species.

Correct Answer: True

Question 25


In 1948 anthropologists discovered that aborigines in Arnhem Land were able to sustain themselves well on an average workday of ____.

Correct Answer: less than 6 hours

Question 26


____ specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.

Correct Answer: Forensic anthropology

Question 27


The branch of cultural anthropology that studies human languages is called ____.

Correct Answer: linguistic anthropology

Question 28


An archaeologist has a research project involving the analysis of an old campsite of a people who relied primarily on foraging for wild foods about 500,000 years ago. This project would be considered ____.

Correct Answer: prehistoric

Question 29


Anthropology is different from other disciplines that study humans because ____.

Correct Answer: it synthesizes data from many fields in an effort to describe human behavior as a whole


Question 30


Besides interest in descriptions of particular cultures, the ethnologist is interested also in ____.

Correct Answer: cross-cultural comparisons

Question 31


An archaeologist might attempt to study ____.

Correct Answer: a and c

Question 32


Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala worked with traditional healers in what country in order to promote greater awareness and effectiveness in addressing HIV/AIDS rates?

Correct Answer: South Africa

Question 33


Far from being the biological reality it is thought to be, the concept of race emerged in the ____ century as a device for justifying the dominance of Europeans and their descendants over Africans, Native Americans, and other "people of color."

Correct Answer: 18th


Question 34


The shared, learned behavior of non-human apes would in no way be considered a culture.

Correct Answer: False


Question 35


Technical development contributed to the development of anthropology in that it enabled people to travel to remote parts of the world.

Correct Answer: True

Question 36


A study of how people deal with consumer complaints would be a research interest of the ____.

Correct Answer: applied anthropologist

Question 37


What a forensic anthropologist cannot tell from skeletal remains are details of an individual's health and nutritional history.

Correct Answer: False

Question 38


Laura Nader has called on anthropologists to "study up." What does she mean by this term?

Correct Answer: Anthropologists should study the elites of a society and not only the common people.


Question 39


The Human Relations Area Files provide a great deal of data but prohibit cultural comparison.

Correct Answer: False


Question 40


Acculturation studies led to applied anthropology.

Correct Answer: True

Question 41


A formal, recorded agreement to participate in research is called ____.

Correct Answer: informed consent


Question 42


In what country do we find the Trobriand Islands?

Correct Answer: Papua New Guinea

Question 43


The ethical obligation to self-monitor while doing ethnographic research (constantly checking and re-checking personal or cultural biases) is called ____.

Correct Answer: reflexivity


Question 44


When was the first portable synchronous-sound camera invented?

Correct Answer: 1960

Question 45


Extended on-location research to gather detailed information about a society's culture is called ____.

Correct Answer: ethnographic fieldwork

Question 46


Why were there differences between the original field research of Malinowski and that of Weiner some sixty years later?

Correct Answer: all of these

Question 47


The Ayoreo Indians are from Bolivia.

Correct Answer: True

Question 48


When researchers use things such as photographs in order to prompt people to speak with them about a particular topic, these are called ____.

Correct Answer: eliciting devices


Question 49


The two main scholarly components of Cultural Anthropology are ____.

Correct Answer: ethnography and ethnology


Question 50


Gregory Bateson was trained by Alfred C. Haddon, who is credited with being the first anthropologist to ____.

Correct Answer: use ethnographic film

1 comment:

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